How to Write an Abstract in APA: 14 Steps (with Pictures)


sample abstract for a research paper

The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Mar 20,  · An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes: 1) the overall purpose of the study and the research problem(s) you investigated; 2) the basic design of the study; 3) major findings or trends found as a result of your analysis; and, 4) a brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions. HOW TO WRITE AN ABSTRACT: Tips and Samples Leah Carroll, Ph.D., Director, Office of Undergraduate Research An abstract is a short summary of your completed research. If done well, it makes the reader want to learn more about your research. These are the basic components of an abstract in any discipline.

Research Paper Abstract | Writing Help, Outline Example, Paper Topics

A good abstract summarizes the key points of your paper without providing unnecessary detail. The APA style guide [1] has a specific format for abstract pages, so you should be aware of this format if you are writing an APA paper. Moreover, there are other details to keep in mind concerning how to write an effective abstract. Here's what you should know. To write an abstract in APA format, start by writing your paper first.

After your paper is done, go back and reread what you've written to identify your purpose, methods, scope, results, and conclusions. State these clearly in your abstract, starting with a broad declaration of your topic, like "This paper explores the role of gender on career ambitions" and then providing more specific information about what is covered in your paper. As you write, use present tense and avoid using first person pronouns like "I" or "me. To create this article, 15 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time.

Together, they cited 7 references. Categories: APA Style, sample abstract for a research paper. It also received 20 testimonials from readers, earning it our reader-approved status.

Learn more Make sure you have a page header. The page header, also known as the "running head," should be included at the top of every page. The character count should not exceed 50 characters, including spaces and punctuation. Every letter in the page header should be capitalized. The page number should appear in the top right of the page.

An APA abstract should be the second page of your paper, so the number "2" should appear in the corner. Use standard font. Unless your instructor states otherwise, you should use point Times New Roman font. Double-space the text. All the text on your abstract should be double-spaced. Center the word "Abstract" at the top of the page. The word comes below the page header, as the first line of normal text.

The first letter of the word is capitalized, but the rest of the word is in lower-case, sample abstract for a research paper. Do not bold, italicize, or underline the word, and do not use quotation marks. The word should stand alone and in normal font.

Begin the text of your abstract below. On the line immediately following the word "Abstract," the first line of your actual summary should appear. Do not indent the paragraph. Keep it short. A standard APA abstract is to words long and contained in a single paragraph. Include keywords below the abstract text. Indent as though starting a new paragraph. Type the word "Keywords" in italics.

Capitalize the "K" and follow it with a colon, sample abstract for a research paper. In normal, non-italicized font, follow the colon with three to four keywords describing the paper. These keywords should each appear in the text of the abstract. Separate them with commas. Write your abstract last. Since your abstract is a summary of your paper's contents, you should write it once the contents of your paper are finalized.

To reflect the fact that it is a summary, your abstract should use present tense when referring to results and conclusions and past tense when referring to sample abstract for a research paper and sample abstract for a research paper taken. Do not use future tense. Pay close attention to the purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations mentioned in your paper. Write a rough draft of your abstract without looking directly at your paper.

This will help you to summarize without copying key sentences from your paper. Know which type of abstract you need to write. An abstract can either be informational or descriptive.

The abstract should highlight essential points in order to allow the reader to decide whether or not to read the rest of the report. Sample abstract for a research paper total length should be about 10 percent or less of the length of the report. Descriptive abstracts include the purpose, methods, and scope defined in the report, but not the results, conclusions, or recommendations.

These abstracts are less common to APA style and usually fall under words. The purpose is the introduce the subject to the reader, essentially teasing the reader into reading the report in order to learn the results.

Ask yourself questions about your paper. In order to write a thorough informative abstract, you should ask yourself various questions about the purpose and results of your work.

For instance, ask yourself why you did the study, sample abstract for a research paper, what you did, how you did it, what you found, and what those findings signify. If your paper is about a new method, ask yourself what the advantages of the new method are and how well it works. Only include details used in your essay.

The abstract exists to summarize your paper, so including information in the abstract not used in the paper is a little like false advertising. Even if the information is closely tied to information used in the paper, it does not belong in the abstract.

Note that you can and should use different wording in your abstract. The information should be the same as the information in your paper, but the way that information is phrased should differ. Let the abstract stand alone. The abstract should be dense and phrased in a way that allows it to be read alone. Avoid phrases like, "This paper will look at Do not rephrase or repeat the title since the abstract is almost always read along with the title.

The abstract should be complete on its own since it is often read without the rest of the paper. Do not comment on your findings. Report on your findings rather sample abstract for a research paper commenting on them.

You can and should state your findings, but do not attempt to justify them. The paper itself should be used to justify your findings and provide additional support, not the abstract. Avoid using the first person.

Do not use "I" or "we. For instance, the strongest statement for an abstract would be, "research shows. Avoid abbreviations. While abbreviations and acronyms may appear in the text of the essay, they should not appear in the abstract. Also avoid trade names and symbols. They shouldn't be.

In some of the pictures in Methods 1 and 2 they aren't indented, but in others they are. Likely just an oversight, but abstracts do not indent the first line. Yes No. Not Helpful 1 Helpful Not Helpful 3 Helpful Do the keywords count towards the words needed in an abstract? Not Helpful 1 Helpful 8. Not Helpful 7 Helpful When writing an essay in APA format, the title would be on the first page.

Your abstract would be written on the second page. Not Helpful 4 Helpful 9. Zack Breau. The abstract can include citations, however, this is uncommon. Consider whether a citation is needed to convey your information and proceed from there. To be safe, I would personally omit citations from the abstract. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 2. Not Helpful 1 Helpful 3. If the paper is about me, my behavior, and my life changes, would it be okay to use first person? There is nothing wrong with using first person in APA style where it makes sense, despite what this article says though individual teachers, publications, or companies may have their own specific preferences, and you should follow their preferences.

In sample abstract for a research paper unusual case you're describing, it really depends on the preference of your teacher or whoever you're writing this for, so you should just ask them.


How to Write an Abstract (with Examples) - wikiHow


sample abstract for a research paper


Sample Journalism Abstract. International Headlines Exploring Youth-Centered Innovation in Global News Delivery Traditional news media must innovate to maintain their ability to inform contemporary audiences. This research project analyzes innovative news outlets that have the potential to draw young audiences to follow global current events. Sample APA Research Paper Sample Title Page Running on Empty 1 Running on Empty: The Effects of Food Deprivation on Concentration and Perseverance Thomas Delancy and Adam Solberg Dordt College Place manuscript page headers one-half inch from the top. Put five spaces between the page header and the page number. Full title, authors, and school name. HOW TO WRITE AN ABSTRACT: Tips and Samples Leah Carroll, Ph.D., Director, Office of Undergraduate Research An abstract is a short summary of your completed research. If done well, it makes the reader want to learn more about your research. These are the basic components of an abstract in any discipline.