Human cardiovascular system | anatomy |


cardiovascular system articles

A circulatory system (sometimes cardiovascular system) is an organ system that moves substances to and from cells; it can also help stabilize body temperature and pH (part of homeostasis). Human cardiovascular system, organ system that conveys blood through vessels to and from all parts of the body, carrying nutrients and oxygen to tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. It is a closed tubular system in which the blood is propelled by a muscular heart. Two circuits, the. Cardiovascular System Share this page Cardiovascular Physiology is a branch of physiology concerned with the study of the circulatory system, involving blood flow, the cardiac cycle and cardiac output and how these depend on one another.

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

Human cardiovascular systemorgan system that conveys blood through vessels to and from all parts of the body, carrying nutrients and oxygen to tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. It is a closed tubular system in which the blood is propelled by a muscular heart.

Two circuits, the pulmonary and the systemic, consist of arterialcapillaryand venous components. The primary function of the heart is to serve as a muscular pump propelling blood into and through vessels to and from all parts of the body.

The arteries, which receive this blood at high pressure and velocity and conduct it throughout the body, have thick walls that are composed of elastic fibrous tissue and muscle cells. The arterial tree—the branching system of arteries—terminates in short, narrow, muscular vessels called arteriolesfrom which blood enters simple endothelial tubes i.

These thin, microscopic capillaries are permeable to vital cellular nutrients and waste products that they receive and distribute. From the capillaries, the blood, now depleted of oxygen and burdened with waste products, moving more slowly and under low pressureenters small vessels called venules that cardiovascular system articles to form veins, ultimately guiding the blood on its way back to the heart.

This article describes the structure and function of the heart and blood vessels, cardiovascular system articles, and the technologies that are used to evaluate and monitor the health of these fundamental components of the human cardiovascular system.

For a discussion of diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels, see the article cardiovascular disease. For a full treatment of the composition and physiologic function of blood, cardiovascular system articles, see bloodand for more information on diseases of the blood, see blood disease. To learn more about the human circulatory systemsee systemic circulation and pulmonary circulationand for more about cardiovascular and circulatory function in other living organisms, see circulation.

It is cone-shaped, with the broad base directed upward and to the right and the apex pointing downward and to the left. It is located in the chest thoracic cavity behind the breastbone sternumin front of the windpipe tracheathe esophagusand the descending aortabetween the lung s, and above the diaphragm the muscular partition between the chest and abdominal cavities.

About two-thirds of the heart lies to the cardiovascular system articles of the midline. The heart is suspended in its own membranous sac, the pericardium. The strong outer portion of the sac, or fibrous pericardium, cardiovascular system articles, is firmly attached to the diaphragm below, the mediastinal pleura on the side, and the sternum in front, cardiovascular system articles.

It gradually blends with the coverings of the superior vena cava and the pulmonary lung arteries and veins leading to and from the heart. The space between the lungs, the mediastinumis bordered by the mediastinal pleura, a continuation of the membrane lining the chest. The superior vena cava is the principal channel for venous blood from the chest, arms, neck, and head. Smooth, serous cardiovascular system articles membrane lines the fibrous pericardium, then bends back and covers the heart.

The portion of membrane lining the fibrous pericardium is known as the parietal serous layer parietal pericardiumthat covering the heart as the visceral serous layer visceral pericardium or epicardium. The two layers of serous membrane are normally separated only by 10 to 15 millilitres 0. Cardiovascular system articles slight space created by the separation is called the pericardial cavity. The pericardial fluid lubricates the two membranes with every beat of the cardiovascular system articles as their surfaces glide over each other.

Fluid is filtered into the pericardial space through both the visceral and parietal pericardia. The heart is divided by septa, or partitions, into right and left halves, and each half is subdivided into two chambers. The upper chambers, the atria, are separated by a partition known as the interatrial septum; the lower chambers, the ventriclesare separated by the interventricular septum.

The atria receive blood from various parts of the body and pass it into the ventricles. The ventricles, cardiovascular system articles turn, pump blood to the lungs and to the remainder of the body. The right atriumor right superior portion of the heart, is a thin-walled chamber receiving blood from all tissues except the lungs.

Three veins empty into the right atrium, the superior and inferior venae cavae, bringing blood cardiovascular system articles the upper and lower portions of the body, respectively, and the coronary sinus, draining blood from the heart itself. Blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle. The right ventricle, cardiovascular system articles, the right inferior portion of the heart, is the chamber from which the pulmonary artery carries blood to the lungs.

The left atrium, the left superior portion of the heart, is slightly smaller than the right atrium and has a thicker wall, cardiovascular system articles. The left atrium receives the four pulmonary veinswhich bring oxygenated blood from the lungs.

Blood flows from the left atrium into the left ventricle. The left ventricle, the left inferior portion of the heart, has walls three times as cardiovascular system articles as those of the right ventricle.

Blood is forced from this chamber through the aorta to all parts of the body except the lungs. Shallow grooves called the interventricular sulcicontaining blood vessels, mark the separation between ventricles on the front and back surfaces of the heart. There are two grooves on the external surface of the heart.

One, cardiovascular system articles, the atrioventricular groove, is along the line where the right atrium and the right ventricle meet; it contains a branch of the right coronary artery the coronary arteries deliver blood to the heart muscle. The other, the anterior interventricular sulcus, runs along the line between the right and left ventricles and contains a branch of the left coronary artery.

On the posterior side of the heart surface, a groove called the posterior longitudinal sulcus marks the division between the right and left ventricles; it contains another branch of a coronary artery. A fourth groove, between the left atrium and ventricle, holds the coronary sinus, a channel for venous blood. Human cardiovascular system. Article Media. Info Print Print.

Table Of Cardiovascular system articles. Submit Feedback, cardiovascular system articles. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction The heart Description Shape and location Pericardium Chambers of the heart External surface of the heart Origin and development Structure and function Valves of the heart Wall of the heart Blood supply to the heart Heartbeat Regulation of heartbeat Electrocardiogram Nervous control of the heart The blood vessels The arteries The aorta and its principal branches Pulse The veins Superior vena cava and its tributaries Inferior vena cava and its tributaries Portal system Venous pulmonary system The capillaries Human fetal circulation Evaluating the cardiovascular system Invasive techniques Right-heart catheterization Left-heart catheterization Angiocardiography and arteriography Noninvasive techniques.

Written By: Mark L. Entman Stanley W. Jacob Michael Francis Oliver. See Article History. Start your free trial today for unlimited access to Britannica. Load Next Page. More About. Articles cardiovascular system articles Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.


What is Cardiovascular Disease? | American Heart Association


cardiovascular system articles


Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular d Cited by: Human cardiovascular system, organ system that conveys blood through vessels to and from all parts of the body, carrying nutrients and oxygen to tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. It is a closed tubular system in which the blood is propelled by a muscular heart. Two circuits, the. The latest cardiovascular and cardiology research from prestigious universities and journals throughout the world. For full functionality, it is necessary to enable JavaScript.